Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are a customized method used to provide targeted therapy against cancer. Ideally, monoclonal antibodies can then attach themselves to specific cell-surface antigen and trigger an immune response selectively against them, without harming any of the surrounding cells. But how can these artificial antibodies achieve this? And how safe is this? Antibodies, Acquired Immunity…

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Conditioning as Part of Immunotherapy

The practice of conditioning refers to administering immunosuppressive agents or low-dose chemotherapeutic agent as part of anti-cancer immunotherapy procedures, before the activation of the patient’s immune system or the administration of activated donor lymphocytes. However, it should be noted that chemotherapy can induce both mild anti-cancer cytotoxicity, suppress some negative regulators of the immune system,…

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Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a relatively new form of anti-cancer therapy. Rather than targeting specific cancer cells, the monoclonal antibodies currently available — called immune checkpoint inhibitors — target cells that suppress the potential response of a patient’s lymphocytes against cancer, and will stop some of the known mechanisms that normally turn off immune responses. In…

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Cell-mediated Immunotherapy

The immune response is the one that helps the body react against foreign invasions by recognizing “non self” elements, such as proteins, viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites or foreign cells (in the case of bone marrow or organ transplantation), and tries to neutralize or reject them. When most of us think about immunity, we usually think…

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Anti-Cancer Vaccines

Previous attempts using conventional vaccines prepared with dendritic cells, the classical antigen-presenting cells, and cancer extracts or peptides, did not result in effective regression of cancer. However, the hope is that with our improved understanding of the field, and the availability of agents needed to improve activation of a patient’s immune system, will increase the…

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Coley’s Toxins

Coley’s toxin is a mixture of toxins of killed bacteria. Named after William Coley, the surgical oncologist who kick-started the field of modern anti-cancer immunotherapy. Renewed interest in Coley’s toxin has now re-emerged at Biotherapy International due to their potential applications in the development of personalized anti-cancer vaccines. History of Coley’s Toxins Dr William B…

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Combinatorial Anti-cancer Therapy (COMBAT)

Cancer cells tend to develop mutations and resistance against available anti-cancer modalities, both spontaneously or as a response to chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or radiation therapy. Therefore, the optimal way to attack  cancer can be accomplished by the synergistic combination of different anti-cancer agents that complement each other. The more treatments combined, the better, as it…

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Oncolytic Viruses

Oncolytic viruses are viruses that have the capacity to attack cancer cells, rather than healthy ones. Although the possibility of viruses as a form of cancer therapy was first discovered in 1960, research on the use of oncolytic viruses for treatment of otherwise resistant cancer began much later.  Nowadays, it seems to be a hot…

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Anti-Angiogenic Treatment

Anti-angiogenic treatments are treatments designed to prevent the growth of cancerous tumors,  or to destroy the blood vessels that are responsible for their blood supply, or that of cancer metastases.  Rapid growth of cancer cells depends on adequate blood supply, as it is considered that tumor cells cannot grow larger than 1 or 2 millimetres…

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Allogeneic Targeted Activated Cancer Killer cells (ATACK)

The use of Allogeneic Targeted Activated Cancer Killer cells is designed to induce an effective ATTACK against cancer cells. It is based on the use of intentionally mismatched killer cells, including both T cells, NK cells and NKT cells, targeted preferentially against cancer cells that may have failed to respond to conventional anti-cancer modalities.   How…

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